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Material Baja SKD61

What is SKD-61?

SKD 61 is a hot Work Tool Steel japanese standard (JIS). SKD 61 has high temperature wear resistance and ductility, good heat conductivity, low susceptibility to hot cracks, Good Creep resistance. The core is made of a material having a thermal expansion coefficient of more than 3.8. times 10.sup.-6/degree C at 20 degree C, and preferable materials have a thermal expansion coefficient higher than molybdenum or molybdenum base alloy, that is, a thermal expansion coefficient higher than 4.8.times.10.sup.-6/degree C at 20.degree C and 7.4.times.10.sup.-6 /.degree.C. at 1300.degree. C. Such a material include hot tool steels represented by SKD61, a superalloy such as Nimonic or Ninowal and ceramics having a great strength at a high temperature such as TiB.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2. The core having the unevenness is formed with the machining method of cutting a billet, the casting method or the powder metallurgy method of molding and then sintering a powder. In the case that the core is made of a material having a thermal expansion coefficient of more than molybdenum and provided with rectangular grooves, owing to the cuttings in the longitudinal direction, a compressive stress generates on the interface at the side walls of the grooves between molybdenum and the core by the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients of them during cooling after HIP treatment. Thereby, both members are strongly joined by shrinkage fitting. On the other hand, in the case of conventional plugs coated with molybdenum, a great tensile stress generates on the interface between molybdenum and the core in the longitudinal direction due to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients of them during the cooling to break the plugs.
Equivalent with BOHLER W302 SUPERIOR® (Premium AISI H13) Hot Work Tool Steel.
(Subcategory: Alloy Steel; Ferrous Metal; Hot Work Steel; Metal; Tool Steel
Key Words: DIN 1.2344; JIS SKD61; 40CrMoV5.)

Among the alloy tool steels, the so called hot work die steel (JIS name is SKD61) is being used as the material for the cavity or the core. It is also considered precious as a material for thin core pins because it has a relatively high hardness, withstands wear, and also has relatively high resistance to shock.
In order to bring out its excellent characteristics, SKD61 needs quenching, and after quenching, it is tempered to stabilize the metallographic texture and to improve its toughness. However, since it is known that depending on the conditions of tempering SKD61 causes change of dimensions and reduction of hardness, unforeseen failures can result if the tempering is done without understanding this trend. Therefore, in this course, the tempering characteristics of SKD61 are explained below.

Reduction in the hardness due to tempering
The hardness of SKD61 decreases in various cases by tempering after it is quenched. For example, if a material quenched at 1030°C is tempered, the following changes occur depending on the tempering temperature. (The following data is an actual example, and there will be changes depending on the size of the work and the plate thickness.)

Before quenching63.5HRC
Tempering at 200°C59.5HRC
Tempering at 500°C59HRC
Tempering at 600°C33.5HRC

Therefore, since the hardness decreases suddenly if the tempering is done at an unnecessarily high temperature, care should be taken when resistance to wear is necessary.

Changes in the dimensions due to tempering

The external dimensions of the work change, when SKD61 is tempered after it is quenched. Depending on the tempering temperature, the external dimensions can become larger or smaller. If additional machining is not to be done after tempering, it is necessary to carry out the machining work before quenching taking into considerations the change in the dimensions after tempering.

Example: Quenching at 1030°C

Tempering at 200°C+0.03%
Tempering at 500°C±0%
Tempering at 520°C−0.01%
Tempering at 600°C+0.05%

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