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Stainless Steel 316 Tecnical Data



Chemical Composition (%)
CSiMnNiCrMo
0.005-0.081.002.0010.00-14.0016.00-18.002.00-3.00


Mechanical Properties
Properties Value
Tensile Strength 53 Kgf/MM2
Yield Strength (0.2%) >= 21 Kgf/MM2
Elongation (%) >= 40%
Hardness ≤ 187 HB


Corrosion Resistance
SUS 316 grade has excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to a range of corrosive environments and media. It is usually regarded as “marine grade” stainless steel but is not resistant to warm sea water. Warm chloride environments can cause pitting and crevice corrosion. Grade 316 is also subject to stress corrosion cracking above around 60°C.

Heat Resistance
SUS316 has good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service to 870°C and in continuous service to 925°C. However, continuous use at 425-860°C is not recommended if corrosion resistance in water is required. In this instance 316L is recommended due to its resistance to carbide precipitation. Where high strength is required at temperatures above 500°C, grade 316H is recommended.


Fabrication
Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.


Cold Working
Grade 316 is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of parts. It is also suited to stamping, heading and drawing but post work annealing is recommended to relieve internal stresses. Cold working will increase both strength and hardness of 316 stainless steel.


Hot Working
All common hot working processes can be performed on 316 stainless steel. Hot working should be avoided below 927°C. The ideal temperature range for hot working is 1149-1260°C. Post-work annealing is recommended to ensure optimum corrosion resistance.


Heat Treatment
316 stainless steel cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to 1010-1120°C.


Machinability
316 stainless steel has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced using the following rules:
  • Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening.
  • Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material.
  • Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work
  • Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.


Welding
Fusion welding performance for 316 stainless steel is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for 316 and 316L are the same as the base metal, 316 and 316L respectively. Heavy welded sections may require post-weld annealing. Grade 316Ti may be used as an alternative to 316 in heavy section welds. Oxyacetylene welding has not been found to be successful for joining of 316 stainless steel.


Stainless Steel 316Ti
Another variation of 316 is available. This variation is 316Ti. Stainless steel grade 316Ti contains a small amount of titanium. Titanium content is typically only around 0.5%. The titanium atoms stabilise the structure of the 316 at temperatures over 800°C. This prevents carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries and protects the metal from corrosion. The main advantage of 316Ti is that it can be held at higher temperatures for a longer period without sensitisation precipitation) occurring. 316Ti retains physical and mechanical properties similar to standard grades of 316.

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