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Jenis Jenis Alloy Dan Kandungannya


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Terminology
Alloys are mixtures of metals with either other metals or with non-metals such as carbon and silicon. This is done to develop lighter, stronger or corrosion-resistant metal alloys. An alloy is a partial or complete solid solution of one or more elements in a metallic matrix. Complete solid solution alloys give single solid phase microstructure, while partial solutions give two or more phases that may be homogeneous in distribution depending on thermal (heat treatment) history. Alloys usually have different properties from those of the component elements.
In practice, some alloys are used so predominantly with respect to their base metals that the name of the primary constituent is also used as the name of the alloy. For example, 14 karat gold is an alloy of gold with other elements. Similarly, the silver used in jewelry and the aluminium used as a structural building material are also alloys.
Classification
Alloys can be classified by the number of their constituents. An alloy with two components is called a binary alloy; one with three is a ternary alloy, and so forth. Alloys can be further classified as either substitution alloys or interstitial alloys, depending on their method of formation. In substitution alloys, the atoms of the components are approximately the same size and the various atoms are simply substituted for one another in the crystal structure. An example of a (binary) substitution alloy is brass, made up of copper and zinc. Interstitial alloys occur when the atoms of one component are substantially smaller than the other and the smaller atoms fit into the spaces (interstices) between the larger atoms.
NAME OF ALLOY
PERCENTAGE OF EACH METAL
Bronze
Copper (92%), tin (6%), zinc (2%)
Brass
Copper (70%), zinc (30%)
Steel
Iron (99%), carbon (1%)
Stainless steel
Iron (75%), carbon (1%), chromium (20%), nickel (5%)
Duralium
Aluminium (95%), copper (4%), manganese (1%)
Magnalium
Aluminium (70%), magnesium (30%)
Type metal
Lead (72%), antimony (18%), tin (10%)
Solder
Lead (50%), tin (50%)
Pewter
Tin (85%), copper (7%), bismuth (6%), antimony (2%)
Sterling silver
Silver (92.5%), copper (7.5%)
22 carat gold
Gold (92%), silver (4.9%), copper (3.1%)
18 carat gold
Gold (75%), silver (15%), copper (10%)
Properties
Alloys are usually prepared to improve on the properties of their components. For instance, Steel is stronger than iron, its primary component. The physical properties of an alloy, such as density, reactivity and electrical and thermal conductivity may not differ greatly from the alloy's elements, but engineering properties, such as tensile strength, shear strength and Young's modulus, can be substantially different from those of the constituent materials. This is sometimes due to the differing sizes of the atoms in the alloy—larger atoms exert a compressive force on neighboring atoms, and smaller atoms exert a tensile force on their neighbors. This helps the alloy resist deformation, unlike a pure metal where the atoms move more freely.

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